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The resulting tornadic debris signatire or “TDS” can stand out brightly if it is deep and dense enough, and not too mixed up with similar-looking radar noise that often occurs on the edges of storm cells. Doppler radar signatures can tell warning meteorologists a great deal about a thunderstorm’s structure, but usually can’t see the tornado itself (see the next question about debris signatures). Some background: For tornadoes, a “false alarm” is a warning issued with no tornado inside. This can be a negative number in reality, although NWS sets it to zero in practice for warnings issued at the same time or after a tornado starts. The distinctions between the echo power returned from the two wave sets can be compared by powerful computer algorithms and displayed in several ways useful to forecasters. One such way is “correlation coefficient” — in short, a statistical correlation between power returned in horizontal and vertical waves. Background: Radar beams now transmit with both horizontal and vertical waves. Because even small, light debris (leaves, sticks, grass, papers, insulation, etc.) is still big and irregularly shaped compared to precipitation, tornado-debris horizontal and vertical returns correlate with each other much less than for raindrops or even hailstones.

We are still a long way from that kind of forecasting. There are simply too many small-scale variables involved which we cannot reliably measure or model weeks or months ahead of time. Perhaps, someday, the density of weather observations, available computing capacity, and atmospheric modeling capabilities will advance enough to allow us to do severe storms forecasting months out with some degree of accuracy better than a coin toss. Capabilities retrofitted to our national Doppler radar network since 2010 allow warning forecasters to detect debris plumes lofted into the air by some (not all!) tornadoes. Tornadoes can launch smokestack-like “chimney plumes” of such debris tens of thousands of feet skyward. The TDS only can happen after the tornado has started, and can continue several minutes after a tornado is gone, until the debris disperses and falls out. BACK UP TO THE TOP What is the role of Doppler radar in tornado forecasting? BACK UP TO THE TOP What is the tornado (or tornadic) debris signature? For some outstanding examples, please see this SPC paper on tornadic debris signatures in tropical cyclones. That is why local forecasters must also depend on spotter reports, SPC forecast guidance on the general severe weather threat, and in-house analysis of the weather situation over the region containing thunderstorms, to make the best-informed warning decisions.

However, a TDS allows warning forecasters to have sudden high confidence that a tornado exists, for ramping up the danger level of the warning to more people in its potential path. Each NWS forecast office uses output from at least one Doppler radar in the area to help to determine if a warning is needed. The typical implementation of DST is to set clocks forward by one hour in the spring (“spring forward”), and to set clocks back by one hour in the fall (“fall back”) to return to standard time. BACK UP TO THE TOP What is the tornado forecast for next spring? BACK UP TO THE TOP What was the first successful tornado forecast? BACK UP TO THE TOP How do the concepts of false alarm, detection and lead time relate to each other for tornado forecasts? Similar concepts apply to outlooks and watches, but spread over larger areas and/or analysis grids. This is a very important tool — especially at night, in remote areas without spotters, and for rain-wrapped tornadoes that spotters can’t see safely. Radar also doesn’t see what’s going on under the cloud base, except within a few miles. This is because the radar beam quickly fans out too wide to resolve even the biggest tornadoes, within a few tens of miles after leaving the transmitter.

Even I do not leave my house without my cell phone stun gun for personal security defense. Very specific spots where we will leave a milligram of lithium in onel case, gold with specific concentrations in the best one and so on. One of the things I can’t stress enough is when deciding on a computer backup program, never sacrifice quality for price. Under one plan, workers would be required to contribute 1.6 percent of their covered wages to publicly managed but individually selected retirement accounts. This is how we aim to maintain SPC’s six-plus decades of institutional knowledge during times of much staff turnover. TDS tracks also help post-storm surveyors to pinpoint the likely location of tornado paths that might have gone unreported in previous decades. 15 U.S.C. § 1125. Some states also have their own registration systems under state trademark law. Fish and Wildlife Service teams who have set the stage for state managers to work with ranchers, biologists, and experts to protect communities, livestock, and wildlife,” said National Cattlemen’s Beef Association (NCBA) President Marty Smith.

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